Flora and Fauna

Flora and Fauna of Nepal

Did you know that Nepal covers only 0.1% of the total landmass yet possesses one of the richest biodiversity in plants and animals? In fact, there are 5,980 species of flowering plant and among them; more than 250 are unique to Nepal. Let’s not underestimate the wildlife either. From the world’s tallest grassland to the one-horned rhino, Nepal has big biodiversity when it comes to flora and fauna. Being an environmental hub, Nepal has a great variety in the ecosystem making it possible for animals and plants of various types to survive. The wide spectrum of vegetation along with diverse habitat for animals, Nepal is an ideal place for explorer and wildlife lovers.The flora and fauna of Nepal are one of the basic attractions for tourism in Nepal other than High Himalayas. The country houses varieties of the ecosystem. 

The flora and fauna are housed inside of different types of forest found here. The forest found here can be classified as Tropical Deciduous Monsoon Forest, Subtropical mixed evergreen forest, temperate evergreen forest, subalpine and alpine zone.

The Tropical Deciduous Monsoon Forest is dominated by trees like Sal, Semal, Asna, etc. The forest is spread over Terai plains and broad flat valleys. This very zone is the richest in Wildlife in Nepal. Te area is a residence to animals like gaurs, wild buffalo, and different species of deer, tigers, leopard, and endangered one-horn rhino. Apart from the various types of animals, two specific species of crocodile are found in rivers. Also, dolphins inhabit in the river.
Now exploring more of flora and fauna of Nepal, we can see the subtropical mixed evergreen forest. The rivers with high currents like Karnali, Sapta Koshi, and Narayani flow through the area. Various species of Oak and rhododendron are found here. Animals like Barking Deer, Ghoral, Bear, Serow, Wild Boar, etc are found here along with various species of birds.

Looking into the Northern parts on the lower slopes, we can see the temperate evergreen forest where oaks and pines are found. As we go above we can find the dense conifer forests of Betula spp, Larix, Picea, etc. Animals like a Himalayan Bear, Ghoral, Wild Boar, Barking Deer, Red Panda, etc is found here along with birds like Lophophorus which is also a national bird of Nepal.

Then comes subalpine and alpine zone extended to high elevations with the presence of Rhododendron, Juniper, etc. Due to the intense and harsh cold climate, the zone is not very rich in wildlife however, animals like Tahr, Snow Leopard, Musk Deer, Wild Yak, etc are found and some of them are rarely found. The area is a home to various birds like Snow Cock, Snow Partridge, etc